Addictive behavior involves excess of substance such as alcohol, nicotine or sedatives etc. Addictive or substance use disorders are classified into two categories namely substance abuse disorders and substance dependence disorder. Substance abuse disorder involves excessive use of drugs which leads to dangerous consequences. Such as, damage of property, family and relationships. Substance dependence disorder involves intense craving for the substance to which the person is addicted. This involves the symptoms of tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, drug seeking behavior, lack of success in discontinuation of use of substance etc.
Various types of substance abuse which people get addicted to:
Alcohol abuse and dependence:
People drink huge amount of alcohol regularly in order to deal with the difficult situations such as loss of loved ones, unemployment, financial constraints etc., as consumption of alcohol activates the pleasure areas which releases endogenous opiate which gives relief from pain. But consuming alcohol in large amounts leads to severe impairments physiologically and psychologically. It effects decision making abilities, motor skills or coordination and sensory impairments. Psychologically it lowers the self-confidence of the individual and affects interpersonal relationships.
Severe alcohol dependency develops withdrawal symptoms and tolerance. Such as
- Chronic fatigue
The children born to these alcoholic persons would have problems such as fatal alcohol, low birth weight and chromosome abnormalities.
Narcotics are addictive, such as opium and heroin, which usually relieves pain, induces sleep and alters the mood and behavior of the person. Opium is a mixture of about 18 chemical substances which is bitter in tastes that serve as pain reliever. Opium and heroin are commonly induced into the body by smoking, shorting (inhaling the powder) and eating. Intense use of these drugs results in craving for drug, which has severe effects on person. Such as, decrease in need for food and sex, becomes lethargic. She/he shows withdrawal symptoms such as restlessness, sweating, insomnia etc.
This is a central nervous system depressant drug. Tranquilizers are classified into two.
- Minor tranquilizer (anxiolytics or anti- anxiety agents)
- Major tranquilizer (neuroleptics)
This drug is mainly used to treat mental illness. Minor tranquilizer is for the treatment of anxiety, tension, panic attack and insomnia. Neuroleptics specifically relieve the symptoms of mental illness but also used as sedatives before surgical and medical procedures. They are rarely misused for other purposes. Minor tranquilizers are, however, frequently abused. They ingest tranquilizer in pill or capsule form. Many tranquilizers tend to induce sleep. Many users report nausea, dizziness, skin rashes, tremors etc.
Cocaine is a plant product. They ingest by sniffing, swelling or injecting. When a person ingest cocaine, he or she enters into the blissful state which leads to headache, dizziness and restlessness. They also show psychotic symptoms such as frights, hallucinations etc. Caffeine is another example of stimulants which people use. This is in the form of coffee, tea, chocolate and soft drinks. It has several positive effects such as increasing energy and mental alertness. But also, negative effect such as headache, fatigue and irritability.