As I wrote in my other article today, several coronaviruses can affect both animals and humans; this article briefly covers the strains that can affect humans.
Human coronavirus 229E
This coronavirus species can infect both humans and bats; it is transmitted via respiratory droplets and fomites, inanimate objects which can transfer diseases to a new host. It is associated with conditions such as the common cold, pneumonia, bronchiolitis, ARDS, and HRSV.
Human coronavirus OC43
Abbreviated as HCoV-OC43, this coronavirus can infect both humans and cattle. It is among the viruses that cause the common cold; it can also cause severe lower respiratory infections.
Human coronavirus HKU1
HCoV-HKU1 is a coronavirus that can appear in humans and animals. It causes a common cold-like upper respiratory disease that, if not taken care of, can become pneumonia, bronchiolitis, and ARDS.
Human coronavirus NL63
This coronavirus was first found in a 7-month-old baby diagnosed with bronchiolitis in 2004; the virus is found worldwide and is associated with many symptoms and illnesses. Associated conditions include mild to moderate URIs, severe lower respiratory tract infections, croup, and bronchiolitis.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus
This is a species of coronavirus consisting of multiple strains; it can infect humans, bats, and some other mammals. This is another strain that has been identified as a likely cause of future pandemics; it has already caused two, the 2002-2004 SARS outbreak and the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.
Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus
MERS-CoV is the virus that causes Middle East respiratory syndrome or MERS; the virus can affect humans as well as bats and camels. MERS cases have been reported on multiple continents, and the virus has been identified as likely to cause a future epidemic.