Foxes are small to medium-sized mammals belonging to the Canidae family; of the many species called “fox”, twelve are considered “true foxes”, meaning they are from the genus Vulpes.
Bengal fox (Vulpes bengalensis)
Also known as the Indian Fox, this species is found from southern India to the Himalayan foothills, and from Pakistan to Bangladesh. It is relatively small, with an elongated muzzle and a bushy, black-tipped tail, by which it is easily recognized.
Blanford’s Fox (Vulpes cana)
This small fox is native to the Middle East and Central Asia; it is also known as the Afghan Fox, the steppe fox, or the Balochistan fox, among other names. It is brownish-gray in color, with wide ears and a bushy tail that is almost as long as its body.
Cape Fox (Vulpes chama)
This is a smaller-built fox, with ears that are relatively large and sharp, and a muzzle that is small and pointed. It is found in southern Africa, being widespread in Zimbabwe, South Africa, and Botswana; it is the only species of Vulpes that exists in Africa south of the equator.
Corsac fox (Vulpes corsac)
Also known as a steppe fox, this fox is found in Central Asia, ranging into Mongolia and China. It is a medium-sized fox with mostly gray to yellowish coloring.
Tibetan fox (Vulpes ferrilata)
Also known as the Tibetan sand fox, this species is endemic to the high plateaus, steppes, and semi-deserts of Tibet, Nepal, China, and Bhutan. It is small and compact, with a bushy tail; its coloring is tan, rufous, and gray.
Pale fox (Vulpes pallida)
This small, pale sandy and white-colored fox inhabits a band of Northern Africa stretching from Senegal to Sudan; due to its remote habitat, it is one of the least-studied canids. One thing that is known about it is that there are five recognized subspecies.
Kit fox (Vulpes macrotis)
This species inhabits the arid and semi-arid regions of the southwestern US and northern and central Mexico; it is the smallest of the “true fox” species found in North America. Its most distinctive feature is its large ears; its overall coloring is generally grizzled or yellowish gray.
Rüppell’s fox (Vulpes ruepellii)
Also called Rüppell’s sand fox, this species lives in the desert and semi-desert regions in northern Africa, the Middle East, and southwestern Asia. It is a small fox, with males being only slightly longer than females; their coloring is primarily sandy, with some brown and reddish hues.
Swift fox (Vulpes velox)
This small fox is about the size of a domestic cat. It lives in the grasslands of western North America, from Oklahoma and Texas to the southern parts of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta; it may also live in some desert areas. Its fur is light orange-tan.
Fennec fox (Vulpes zerda)
This species is native to northern Africa, specifically the Sinai Peninsula and the Sahara, Arava, and Negev deserts. It has distinctive, unusually large ears, and is straw-colored overall; it is the smallest of the Canid species.
Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus)
Also known as the polar fox or snow fox, this small species is native to the Arctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Its thick white fur helps it adapt to cold climates, and serves as camouflage. In the wild, lifespans can range from less than a year up to eleven years.
Red fox (Vulpes vulpes)
This is the fox that most of us know. The red fox is the largest of the “true fox” species and one of the most widely distributed, appearing all over the Northern Hemisphere. Thanks to the fact that its population has grown alongside human expansion, it also appears in Australia, where is this one of the worst invasive species. The red fox appears in multiple color varieties and has 45 recognized subspecies.